عنوان مقاله [English]
In today's highly competitive tourism environment, destinations have a better chance of becoming competitive in terms of competitiveness and attracting new tourists. Smart tourism destinations are one of the factors in gaining this privileged position. In the field of smart and competitive tourism destinations, direct and comprehensive research has not been done and only the discussion of the effect of smartness on the competitiveness of tourism destinations has been mentioned sparsely in the literature on the subject of smartness and competitiveness. In this study, the city of Yazd has been selected as the subject of this study. This city has been one of the important destinations for domestic and foreign tourists in the country. In addition, several measures have been taken in the field of development of information and communication technologies and efforts to make the city smarter. However, a review of research background shows that no similar research has been conducted in the field of smartness and competitiveness in Yazd. In general, a review of the results of previous research shows that in general, the smartness and competitiveness of this destination is not in a good condition. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to measure, identify and analyze the status of smartness and competitiveness of the tourism destination of Yazd in general and separately for each component.
This research can be divided into three stages in terms of data collection and analysis. In the first stage, archival data analysis method collects and combines previous research and determines the components and indicators for measuring the smartness and competitiveness of urban tourism destinations and the findings are validated using the opinion of tourism experts. In the second stage, using a questionnaire and a survey of Yazd tourism experts, data related to the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination and the impact of each of the components of smartness and competitiveness with factor analysis technique and Smart PLS software was determined. In the third stage, using one-sample t-test in SPSS software, the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination in general and separately for each component was measured.
Discussion and Results
With archival studies in the literature and research background and then with the validation of findings and determining the validity of content, 14 components (including 6 components of smartness and 8 components of competitiveness) and 99 measurement indicators (including 57 smartness indicators and 42 competitive indicators) was confirmed and selected. Then, by designing an online questionnaire, a survey of 96 tourism experts in Yazd was conducted. Based on the results of the analysis of data collected in this stage, the component of residents' lives/tourists' experience with a rate of 0.918 has the highest impact on smartness. The components of tourism environment, residents/tourists, governance/management, access/transportation, and tourism business environment are in the next ranks, respectively. In addition, the destination management component with a rate of 0.915 has the highest level of competitiveness. The components of public infrastructure, demand, reinforcing and supporting factors, tourism services, tourism policy and planning, key resources and attractions, and general destination conditions are ranked next, respectively. Also, the study of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination, showed that the competitiveness in general and its 4 components, including the general conditions of the destination, reinforcing and supporting factors, key resources and attractions, and demand in Yazd city is higher than average and suitable. The status of the other 4 components of competitiveness, including tourism policy and planning, destination management, public infrastructure and tourism services in Yazd city is below average and Yazd city in these 4 components is not in a good position. In addition, the status of smartness and its components in Yazd city is lower than average and this city is not in a good position in terms of smartness.
Based on the results of the research, it can be argued that the unfavorable situation and below the average of smartness and its components have a negative impact on the competitiveness of this destination in the four components below the average. Especially due to this important finding that the situation of Yazd city is lower in the components of destination management and public infrastructure, which are in the first and second ranks with the greatest impact on the competitiveness of this destination. In the field of smartness, Yazd tourism destination has not been directly researched so that the results cannot be compared with the results of this research. However, in some researches related to the development of tourism in this destination, the unfavorable situation of Yazd city has been pointed out in some smartness indicators. In terms of competitiveness and its components in Yazd city, the results of previous research have been different. In general, the findings of previous research, despite some differences with the results of this study, is emphasized on the poor condition of this city in components such as public infrastructure, tourism policy and planning, destination management and tourism services, that is in line with the results of this research. According to the research findings, it is necessary to mention that improving the smartness situation of Yazd city, especially by emphasizing the indicators related to the city's livability, long-term sustainability and the use of various new technologies and indicators related to equality and social justice will have a positive impact on improving the competitiveness of Yazd city. Therefore, the attention of managers, policy makers and decision makers of Yazd tourism destination development should be focused on improving the smartness situation and its components and indicators according to the mentioned priorities and in a comprehensive package to be based on it.
Tourism, Smartness, Competitiveness, Yazd Tourist Destinations.