الگوسازی و سنجش مؤلفه مسکن ایرانی‌-‌اسلامی درکلانشهر مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مهندسی شهرسازی ،دانشگاه بجنورد،بجنورد،ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی منطقه ای ،دانشگاه تهران،تهران،ایران

3 دانش آموخته دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری،دانشگاه اصفهان،اصفهان،ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش تلاش شده است با روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و استفاده از داده های اسنادی و پیمایشی ابعاد مختلف مسکن ایرانی‌ـ اسلامی بررسی و اصول ومعیارهای مطلوب بیان گردد. برای تعمیم و گسترش الگوی مسکن ایرانی- اسلامی نیاز به معرفی یک شهر یا منطقه شهری به عنوان الگو می باشد تا سایر مناطق به الگو برداری از آن منطقه ترغیب شوند. در این تحقیق برای تعمیم الگوی مطلوب، یک منطقه از مناطق 13 گانه شهر مشهد که بیشترین نزدیکی به مولفه های تعیین شده دارد به عنوان منطقه الگو تعیین و سایر مناطق را با الگوی تعیین شده تطبیق داده شده است. با استخراج مولفه‌های مسکن ایرانی- اسلامی 11 شاخص‌هویت،اعتدال،دوری-ازبیهودگی،دوری‌‌‌‌ازکبر،رعایت‌سلسله‌مراتب،حیاط‌مرکزی داشتن،درونگرایی،امنیت،حیا،تراکم و مساحت تعیین و از طیف لیکرت استفاده وبا کمک نرم افزار Expert choice وزن دهی و ارزشگذاری انجام شد.بعد لایه هابصورت رقومی وارد سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی شده و تحلیل ها ارایه شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد مؤلفه های مسکن ایرانی- اسلامی در مناطق مختلف شهر مشهد که از آن به عنوان پایتخت معنوی ایران یاد می‌شود، رعایت نشده‌ و از مشخصه های مسکن ایرانی-اسلامی فاصله دارد.بطوریکه معیار تراکم با وزن158سازگارترین معیار و مساحت با وزن 49/.دورترین فاصله را با معیار مطلوب در مسکن ایرانی – اسلامی تعلق گرفته است.دیگر یافته ها بیانگر این است که تنها منطقه 8 شهرداری مشهد با داشتن نیمی از شاخصهای مورد تحقیق بیشترین مطابقت را دارد و با داشتن بالاترین ارزش به مقدار44/2دربین سایر مناطق از نظر مشخصه مسکن ایرانی – اسلامی قابل قبول بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Patterning and measurement of Iranian-Islamic Housing Element in Mashhad metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • ali asghar pilehvar 1
  • bahare mostofian 2
  • elahe kavosi 3
1 department of urban planning .university of bojnord
2 department of urban planning.university of bojnord
چکیده [English]

The identity of life in cities and its physical elements such as housing are of paramount importance. Housing is the smallest form of physical embodiment of human-environment interactions and spatial crystallization is a vital function of human habitation. Housing is considered to be a physical place and a primary shelter for family members.This shelter fulfills some of the basic needs of individuals or the household, such as sleeping, resting, protection from inclement weather, etc. . . . A proper housing or shelter is not limited to the physical structure of a house.
Developing and proliferating Iranian-Islamic housing demand choosing a city or an urban district as a model, so that other districts be persuaded to follow. In this research, a district was chosen as a model from thirteen districts of Mashhad City. This was done based on the closeness of the elements of the district to the specified elements. Other districts, then, were compared with the model. Eliciting Iranian-Islamic housing elements, eleven indices were determined: identity, modulation, purposefulness, avoidance of arrogance, maintenance of hierarchy, having a central courtyard, introversion, security, modesty, density, and area. Using a Likert scale and Expert Choice software, weighting and evaluating were done. Afterwards, the numerical data were entered into GIS and analyzed. The results showed that various districts of Mashhad City, which is known as the spiritual capital of Iran, have not been formed in accordance with the Iranian-Islamic housing elements. The results also indicated that only municipality district number 8 has half of the research elements and the highest degree of conformity with the research indices. Having the highest value of 2.44 among all districts, this district was acceptable in terms of having Iranian-Islamic housing elements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iranian-Islamic housing
  • locating
  • model district
  • Mashhad
-Abu-Lughod,J. (1973). Cairo: Perspective and Prospectus. In Brown,L. Carl (Ed. ). From Madina to Metropolis: Heritage and Change in the Near Eastern City. The Darvin Press. Princeton, NewJersey.
-Aminpour, A. Madani, R. Hayati, H. Deldadeh, M. A. (2015). Recognition of Housing and Housing Concepts Based on Islamic Teachings, Urban Management, 40 (14) 47-59,(in Farsi).
-Aminzadeh, B. ( 2000). The Principles of Security in the Islamic City, Research Quarterly, 4, 40-52,(in Farsi).
-Aminzadeh, B. ( 2015). Values in Urban Landscape Design, University of Tehran Press, Tehran.
-Akash, S. (1999). The manifestation of world order and its mapping in traditional Islamic architecture. Translated by: Khan Mohammadi Ali Akbar, Safeh Magazine, 28,9,(in Farsi).
-Asefi, M. Imani, E. ( 2016). Redesigning Contemporary Iranian-Islamic Designed Housing Design Patterns, Qualitative Evaluation of Traditional Houses, Journal of Islamic Architectural Research, 11 (4), 56-73,(in Farsi).
-Atghaei, H. , Pilehvar, A. A. (2017). Designing Integrated Urban Management Pattern for Metropolises, Case Study: Mashhad. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 9(17), 285-301,(in Farsi).
-Dudley,W. (1998). Guest Editional Lim Cities, Volum15, No. 3, March.
-Diba, H. Ardalan, A. ( 1998). Report of a Visit, Abadi Quarterly, 27 and 28,(in Farsi).
-Esmaeilpour, F. , Saraei, M. , Rezaei, M. , Esmaeilpour, N. (2019). Prediction of Land Use Change and Determination of Urban Growth Patterns Using Markov Chain Model and Multi-Chip Satellite Images: A Case Study of Arak City. The Journal of Geographical Research on Desert Areas, 7(1), 113-147,(in Farsi).
-Ghezelbash, F. Aboulzia, M. R. (1985). Alphabet of Traditional Houses of Yazd, Ministry of Planning and Budget.
-Habitat,(2006). The Habitat Agenda, Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements-1996. june UN-HABITAThttp://www. unhabitat. org/downloads/docs/2072 61331 ist dec. pdf. website accessed Sep. 2010.
-Hatami Nejad, H. Seifeddini, F. Mir, M. (2006). Investigation of Unofficial Housing Indicators in Iran. Case Study: Sheikh Abad Neighborhood of Qom, Geographical Research Quarterly, 58, 129-145,(in Farsi).
-Hisham, M. (2008). Traditional Principles of Construction in Islam, Translated by Abolfazl Meshkini and Kiomars Habibi, Publishing Center for Urban Studies and Architecture, First Edition, Tehran.
-Hossinzadeh ,A. Poyan,A. A. Mousavi,E. (2013). The identity of culture and tradition is a model for compiling spatial belonging to Iranian houses, National Conference on Architecture, Urban Planning and Sustainable Development with a focus on indigenous architecture to sustainable cities,Mashhad.
-Hossein Abadi, S. , Pour Mohammadi,, M. , Mousavi, M. (2020). An analysis of the relationship between walkability and social sustainability: A case study of the city of Sabzavar. The Journal of Geographical Research on Desert Areas, 8(1), 187-214,(in Farsi).
-Jahanbakhsh, H. Lotfi Pour, M . Zakipour, N. (2018). A Study of the Transformation of the Nature of the Territory of Kinship, Public from Iranian-Islamic to Contemporary Iranian Cities, Quarterly Iranian-Islamic Studies, 31 (8). 41-31,(in Farsi).
-Khaledian, S. Karimian. H, Pour Ahmad, A. Mazaherian, H. (2014). Explaining Islam's Position in Urbanization Process and Iranian Urban Space Organization, Iranian-Islamic Studies Quarterly, 17 (5), 5-18,(in Farsi).
-Khakpoor, B. , Sayad Salar, Y. , Moammari, E. , Saeedi Abdolabadi, A. (2019). Assessing the Potentials of Smart Cities with an Emphasis on Urban Transportion: A Case Study of the City of Birjand. The Journal of Geographical Research on Desert Areas, 6(2), 187-214,(in Farsi).
-Kheirabadi, M. ( 1998). Iranian Cities Translated by: Hossein Hataminjad and Ezzat  Mafi, Mashhad, Nika Publishing.
-Lakoyan, A. (1985). Third World Housing (Minimum Housing). Translated by Mino Rafiei, Ministry of Planning and Budget.
-Leonardo, B. (1990), History of the cities of Islamic and European cities in the Middle Ages. Translated by: Parvaneh Movahed, Academic Publishing Center.
-Lee, B(1996). Architectural Design of Office Buildings: Air Conditioning. Translated by: Mazdak Sadri Afshar, Proceedings of the Essential Issues of High-Rise Building, Iranian Center for Urban Studies and Research, Tehran.
-Maleki, S. , aryan kia, M. (2019). Evaluation of Historical Housing Index in View of Iranian-Islamic Architectural Style in Line with Transformability of Modern Architecture. Iranian Pattern of Progress, 7(13), 36-62,(in Farsi).
-Mahmoodi Mehmandust, M. (2017). Meaning in Housing, Rereading of the Narrative of Yesterday’s Housing for Today’s Life. Journal of Architectural Thought, 1(2), 98-112,(in Farsi).
-Ministry of Housing and Urban Development(1995). Proceedings of    the Seminar on Housing Development Policies in Iran, University of Tehran Press, Volume II, First Edition.
-Mirkatouli, J. Sarmad,R. (2017).  An analysis on the role  of  urban land market in spatial development of cities: A case study of Mashahad. International journal of strategic management , 21(4): 371–383.
-Mirkatoli, J. , Baddast, B. , Ariankia, M. (2017). Indicator Stability Assessment of Housing Services in order to Promote the Development of Urban Settlements (Case Study: Gorgan City). Journal of Urban Social Geography, 3(4), 125-146,(in Farsi).
-Michel, G. (2003). The Architecture of the Islamic World and its Social Concept, Translated by: Ya'qub Ajand, Molly Publishing, First Edition, Tehran.
-Mohammadian, M. (2007). The Hierarchy of Privacy in Iranian Mosques, Journal of Fine Arts, 29. 59- 77,(in Farsi).
-Naghi zadeh, M. ( 2012). Reflections on Understanding the Basics of Islamic Housing, Art Month Book, 170. 38-54,(in Farsi).
-Naghi zade, M. ( 2008). Islamic City and Architecture (Specifications and Objects), Amani Publications, First Edition, Tehran.
-Naghi zadeh, M. (2008). Islamic Architecture and Urban Development, Rahian Publications, Isfahan.
-Naghi zadeh, M. ( 2012). Reflections on Understanding the Basics of Islamic Housing, Art Month Book, 170. 38-54,(in Farsi).
-Naghi zadeh, M. (2017). Islamic Aboding: From Theory to Practice in the Past and Present. Journal of Architectural Thought, 1(2) ,(in Farsi).
-Nasr, T. (2015). The Position of the "Architecture of Housing" Paradigm in Today's View of Iranian-Islamic City, Quarterly Iranian-Islamic Studies, 22 (6),67- 78. (in Farsi).
-Noghre kar, A. (2015). An Overview of Islamic Wisdom in Art and Architecture, Iran University of Science and Technology Publications, Tehran.
-Oktay, D. (1998). Urban spatial patterns and local identity: Evaluation in a Cypriot Town. Open House International, 23, 17.
-Payandeh, A. (1983). Nahj al-Fasheh, Immortal Publications, Tehran.
-Piran, P. (2005). The Identity of Cities - Too Many for a Complex Concept,Abadi Journal, No. 48, 6-10,(in Farsi).
-Pourmohammadi, M. R. (2006). Housing Planning, Tehran: Post Office, Third Edition. Tehran.
-Saraie, M. , Alizadeh Shoroki, Y. , Rezaei, M. (2020). Identifying the key drivers of sustainable tourism and developing the most desirable scenario: A Case study of the historical city of Meybod. The Journal of Geographical Research on Desert Areas, 8(1), 113-131,(in Farsi).
-Shipman ,L. ( 1999). The Islamic city order within Chaos, Pwcs, Edu, Hyiton High School. World Net Virgina,. Prine William County.
-Soltanzadeh, H. ( 1993). The Impact of Islam on City Construction, Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, 25 and 26. 44- 51,(in Farsi).
-Tavakkolia Nia, J. Dastvareh, F. (2018). Currency Exchange Comparative Analysis of Approaches to Iranian-Islamic City, Iranian-Islamic Studies Quarterly, 28 (7), 5-20,(in Farsi).
-Vasiq, B. Pashootenizadeh, A. (2010). Concepts of Residence in Islamic Verses and Traditions, Journal of Housing and Rural Environment. 129. 50- 65,(in Farsi).
-Zarghamfard,M. Meshkini,A. Porahmad,A. Morganti,B. (2019). Determining the Adequate Housing Indicators from Islamic School Viewpoint, Journal of Studies on Iranian-Islamic City. 9(35),33-46,(in Farsi).
-Ziyari, K. Zarafshan, A. ( 2006). Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Housing in Maragheh and Prediction of Housing Needed by 1402, Geography and Development Quarterly, 8 (4), 85-105,(in Farsi).