مطالعه‌ای ساختار یافته: رابطه چشم انداز بیابانی و توسعه گردشگری در مناطق گرم و خشک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی،دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

2 دانشیار، عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی،دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

چکیده

در تحلیل های معماری، بسترهای گرم و خشک یکی از انواع اکوسیستم های مورد توجه معماران منظر قـرار گرفته است. این مناطق تقریبا یک سوم سطح زمین را تشکیل می‌دهند که در شرایط آب و هوایی، خاک، پوشش گیاهی، حیوانات و ... متنوع هستند. با توجه به اینکه صنعت گردشگری بر اساس آمار سازمان های مرتبط رو به رشد است، بنابراین توجه به بسترهای فوق، شناخت جاذبه‌های گردشگری، مطالعه ویژگی‌ها و روش‌های بهره برداری از آن‌ها برای توسعه گردشگری کویر بسیار ضروری است. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر با مرور ساختار یافته پژوهش‌های پیشین به دنبال تبیین رابطه چشم انداز عینی مناظر بیابانی و توسعه گردشگری در بسترهای گرم خشک و شناسایی عوامل موثر بر آن در جهت توسعه گردشگری می باشد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد از بین مولفه‌های بصری چشم انداز بیابانی، تپه های ماسه ای به لحاظ شکل زمین و جاذبه های گردشگری، یکی از مهم‌ترین نمودهای آن می باشد، پوشش گیاهی در این مناطق از دیگر مولفه‌ها در چشم انداز بیابانی است که در زمینه گردشگری با توجه به متغیرهای، جاذبه ها، دیدگاه های طبیعی و گردشگری سلامت مورد توجه است. بافت و رنگ نیز در این مناطق به جهت ایجاد تنوع بصری و جذابیت های خاص این مناطق، از نظر اهمیت، در مرتبه های بعدی قرار دارند. بر این اساس ویژگی های چشم انداز بیابانی، به خصوص پارامترهای شکل زمین، پوشش گیاهی، بافت و رنگ در توسعه گردشگری نقش مهمی ایفا می کند که گسترش آن نیازمند مطالعات بیشتر در این زمینه می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Systematic Study: the Relationship Between Desert Landscape and Tourism Development in Hot and Dry Areas

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh khaleghian 1
  • Ali Sharghi 2
1 Master student of architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
2 Associate Professor, Faculty member of the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Today, tourism is one of the main factors of economic progress and growth in developed countries as well as in developing countries. New trends in tourism have gradually turned some places into tourist destinations, Among the deserts that are of interest to tourists today. Considering that most of Iran is covered by arid and desert areas, accurate and systematic recognition of dry areas and ways to utilize them, it is essential for the country's economic and social development. one of the simplest ways is to use the ecotourism and geotourism features of these lands. The development of tourism activities in these areas requires special attention because if it becomes unbridled tourism, it can damage the natural structure and even the cultural characteristics of the inhabitants of these areas. The landscape for the person who perceives it as an observer is visually identifiable with structural features, which call it an objective perspective. Therefore, this study by systematically examining the background of the subject and describing and analyzing its content with the aim of explaining the role of desert tourism and tourism development in arid areas, identifying and explaining reliable methods for tourism growth and development in these areas through desert landscape. Finally, it describes the gaps in the research topic. In addition, this study seeks to answer the following questions.
What are the characteristics of the desert landscape?
How can a desert landscape develop tourism in hot and dry areas?

Methodology
The present study is a Systematic review that refers to a purposeful study. Therefore, in order to achieve the proposed goals, the content of previous research has been analyzed and described. For this purpose, three databases (Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SID) and ResearchGate commercial social network with appropriate keywords, Search by title and keywords from 1992 to 2022 (articles published in the last 30 years), By identifying the researchers and their initial and main studies in this field, as well as before and after their references, 69 articles were extracted and reviewed.
Results and discussion
According to the study of hot and dry beds in the field of visual landscape and its impact on tourism development in these areas, in examining the morphological patterns of these areas, visual components such as water, shadow, topography and slope can be identified in the crest line and trough line pattern. therefore in the formation of these deserts, wind is known as one of the important causes of soil erosion in these areas. From the surface displacement of particles by wind and their accumulation creates sand dunes that have a variety of visual qualities, Also, due to sudden rains in these areas, water erosion is very severe in these areas. Various effects due to water and wind erosion are observed in desert areas, the most important of which are the Yardang deserts. Limited water resources that have created vegetation in different patterns, they are known as tourist attractions, it can also be effective in the field of scientific tourism and health through biological knowledge and identification of medicinal plants. Visual texture is seen in the study of the Earth's crust in various forms from micro to macro, horizontal, vertical, soft and hard, the soft form of sand dunes that create tranquility in these areas, the footprints created by the movement of animals and reptiles on the sand dunes, etc. can bring visual diversity in the field of tourism Color is also one of the important variables in these areas in order to create visual diversity and special charms of these areas; considering it can be effective in determining the time to visit the sand dunes of these areas as well as in designing and choosing colors for buildings and desert camps.

Conclusion
Due to the tourist attraction in the hot and dry areas, tourism is of great importance for the development of these spots. This study focuses on the specifications of hot and dry areas and identifies the components of the desert landscape in order to Explanation on the relationship between tourism development and these regions characteristics. The research findings and the factors that influenced this in previous studies show that, Sand dunes are one of the Important images of wind erosion in terms of land shape in addition to tourist attractions and visual diversity. Vegetation and its types in these areas are other components in the discussion of desert landscape that can be effective in the field of health and scientific tourism. Visual texture in the earth's crust of these areas has been studied, which can be created in various forms and create unique physical conditions in these areas. Color recognition is also associated with creating visual diversity in these areas. Reasonable utilization and arrangement of structure and color can be crucial factor for landscape aesthetics in landscape design and planning in the future. Finally, the shape of the earth and its morphological patterns have had the greatest impact on the development of tourism in these spots. Therefore, hot and dry areas, especially deserts and arid areas, have many natural and tourism potentials, which, if used properly, can create a great economic, social and cultural change in the country. Considering that attraction in all its forms, including natural, historical and cultural, is the main pillar of the tourism industry and indeed the main purpose of travel, knowing it is of great importance. Accordingly, the identification of tourist attractions, especially natural factors in desert areas, still needs further investigation, therefore, conducting detailed studies on the characteristics of these attractions, exploitation techniques, creating appropriate infrastructure, identifying the motivation of tourists in choosing These places and their use in advertising and marketing messages, as well as the promotion of planning and management aspects, with the aim of developing this emerging industry in these areas is very important.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tourism development
  • desert landscape
  • Systematic review.Hot and dry landscape