تحلیل هوشمندی و رقابت‏ پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه یزد

چکیده

در فضای بسیار رقابتی گردشگری عصر حاضر، مقصدهایی شانس رقابت‏پذیری بیشتری دارند که بتوانند از نظر شاخص‏های رقابت‏پذیری و جذب گردشگران نوین، موقعیت‏های ممتازی را کسب کنند. هوشمند شدن مقصدهای گردشگری یکی از عوامل کسب این موقعیت ممتاز است. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، سنجش، شناسایی و تحلیل وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد در کل و به تفکیک مولفه‏های هریک است. برای دستیابی به هدف تحقیق سه مرحله پژوهشی تدوین گردید. در مرحله اول با روش تحلیل داده‏های آرشیوی به‏گردآوری و تلفیق پژوهش‎های پیشین و تعیین مولفه‏ها و شاخص‏های سنجش هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری مقصدهای گردشگری شهری پرداخته شده و یافته‏ها با استفاده از نظر خبرگان گردشگری اعتبارسنجی گردید. در مرحله دوم، با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه و نظرسنجی از خبرگان گردشگری شهر یزد، داده‏های مربوط به وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد گردآوری و میزان تاثیر هریک از مولفه‏های هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری تعیین شد. در مرحله سوم با استفاده از آزمون تی تک نمونه‏ای، وضعیت هوشمندی و رقابت‏پذیری مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد در کل و به تفکیک مولفه‏های هریک سنجیده شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که بر اساس آزمون تی تک نمونه‏ای، وضعیت هوشمندی و مولفه‏های آن در شهر یزد پایین‏تر از میانگین است. نتیجه این آزمون از نظر رقابت‏پذیری، نشان داد که وضعیت چهار مولفه سیاست و برنامه‏ریزی گردشگری، مدیریت مقصد، زیرساخت‏های عمومی و خدمات گردشگری در شهر یزد پایین‏تر از میانگین است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd Tourism Destination

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Delshad
Faculty member At Yazd University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In today's highly competitive tourism environment, destinations have a better chance of becoming competitive in terms of competitiveness and attracting new tourists. Smart tourism destinations are one of the factors in gaining this privileged position. In the field of smart and competitive tourism destinations, direct and comprehensive research has not been done and only the discussion of the effect of smartness on the competitiveness of tourism destinations has been mentioned sparsely in the literature on the subject of smartness and competitiveness. In this study, the city of Yazd has been selected as the subject of this study. This city has been one of the important destinations for domestic and foreign tourists in the country. In addition, several measures have been taken in the field of development of information and communication technologies and efforts to make the city smarter. However, a review of research background shows that no similar research has been conducted in the field of smartness and competitiveness in Yazd. In general, a review of the results of previous research shows that in general, the smartness and competitiveness of this destination is not in a good condition. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to measure, identify and analyze the status of smartness and competitiveness of the tourism destination of Yazd in general and separately for each component.
Methodology
This research can be divided into three stages in terms of data collection and analysis. In the first stage, archival data analysis method collects and combines previous research and determines the components and indicators for measuring the smartness and competitiveness of urban tourism destinations and the findings are validated using the opinion of tourism experts. In the second stage, using a questionnaire and a survey of Yazd tourism experts, data related to the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination and the impact of each of the components of smartness and competitiveness with factor analysis technique and Smart PLS software was determined. In the third stage, using one-sample t-test in SPSS software, the status of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination in general and separately for each component was measured.
Discussion and Results
With archival studies in the literature and research background and then with the validation of findings and determining the validity of content, 14 components (including 6 components of smartness and 8 components of competitiveness) and 99 measurement indicators (including 57 smartness indicators and 42 competitive indicators) was confirmed and selected. Then, by designing an online questionnaire, a survey of 96 tourism experts in Yazd was conducted. Based on the results of the analysis of data collected in this stage, the component of residents' lives/tourists' experience with a rate of 0.918 has the highest impact on smartness. The components of tourism environment, residents/tourists, governance/management, access/transportation, and tourism business environment are in the next ranks, respectively. In addition, the destination management component with a rate of 0.915 has the highest level of competitiveness. The components of public infrastructure, demand, reinforcing and supporting factors, tourism services, tourism policy and planning, key resources and attractions, and general destination conditions are ranked next, respectively. Also, the study of smartness and competitiveness of Yazd tourism destination, showed that the competitiveness in general and its 4 components, including the general conditions of the destination, reinforcing and supporting factors, key resources and attractions, and demand in Yazd city is higher than average and suitable. The status of the other 4 components of competitiveness, including tourism policy and planning, destination management, public infrastructure and tourism services in Yazd city is below average and Yazd city in these 4 components is not in a good position. In addition, the status of smartness and its components in Yazd city is lower than average and this city is not in a good position in terms of smartness.
Conclusion
Based on the results of the research, it can be argued that the unfavorable situation and below the average of smartness and its components have a negative impact on the competitiveness of this destination in the four components below the average. Especially due to this important finding that the situation of Yazd city is lower in the components of destination management and public infrastructure, which are in the first and second ranks with the greatest impact on the competitiveness of this destination. In the field of smartness, Yazd tourism destination has not been directly researched so that the results cannot be compared with the results of this research. However, in some researches related to the development of tourism in this destination, the unfavorable situation of Yazd city has been pointed out in some smartness indicators. In terms of competitiveness and its components in Yazd city, the results of previous research have been different. In general, the findings of previous research, despite some differences with the results of this study, is emphasized on the poor condition of this city in components such as public infrastructure, tourism policy and planning, destination management and tourism services, that is in line with the results of this research. According to the research findings, it is necessary to mention that improving the smartness situation of Yazd city, especially by emphasizing the indicators related to the city's livability, long-term sustainability and the use of various new technologies and indicators related to equality and social justice will have a positive impact on improving the competitiveness of Yazd city. Therefore, the attention of managers, policy makers and decision makers of Yazd tourism destination development should be focused on improving the smartness situation and its components and indicators according to the mentioned priorities and in a comprehensive package to be based on it.
Keywords
Tourism, Smartness, Competitiveness, Yazd Tourist Destinations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tourism
  • Smartness
  • Competitiveness
  • Yazd Tourist Destinations
  • References:

    • Angeloni, S. (2016). A tourist kit made in Italy: An intelligent system for implementing new generation destination cards. Tourism Management, 52, 187-209.
    • Asaadi, Mir Mohammad, & Saeeda Ardakani, Saeed. (2015). Presenting a dynamic model for the development of historical tourism (Case Study: Yazd Province). Bi-Quarterly Journal of Business Management Explorations, 7(14), 147-167. (in Farsi).
    • Azadeh, Seyed Reza, & Varesi, Hamid Reza. (2019). An analysis of executive priorities in improving the quality of urban tourism spaces, Case Study: Yazd City. Urban Tourism Quarterly, 6(3), 41-57. (in Farsi).
    • Borsekova, Kamila, Vanova, Anna, & Vitalisova, Katarina. (2017). Smart specialization for smart spatial development: innovative strategies for building competitive advantages in tourism in Slovakia. Socio-economic Planning Sciences, 58, 39-50.
    • Buhalis, D., & Amaranggana, A. (2014). Smart Tourism Destinations. In Z. Xiang & L.Tussyadiah (Eds.). Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, 553-564. Dublin: Springer.
    • Buonincontri, Piera, & Micera, Roberto. (2016). the experience co-creation in smart tourism destinations: a multiple case analysis of European destinations. Information Technology of Tourism, 16, 285–315.
    • Cohen, B. (2012). Smart cities hub. Retrieved 22 July 2013, from http://smartcitieshub.com/2012/11/11/ smart-cities-ranking-methodology/
    • Davari, Ali, & Rezazadeh, Arash. (2016). Structural Equation Modeling with PLS Software. Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi Publishing Organization. (in Farsi).
    • Del Chiappa, G., & Baggio, R. (2015). Knowledge transfer in smart tourism destinations: Analyzing the effects of a network structure. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(3), 145-150.
    • Del Vecchio, P., Mele, G., Ndou, V., & Secundo, G. (2018). Creating value from Social Big Data: Implications for Smart. Information Processing and Management, 54(5), 847–860.
    • Díaz-Díaz, Raimundo, Muñoz, Luis, & Pérez-González, Daniel. (2017). Business model analysis of public services operating in the smart city ecosystem: The case of SmartSantander. Future Generation Computer Systems, 76, 198–214.
    • Dwyer, L., & Kim, C. (2003). Destination competitiveness: Determinants and indicators. Current Issues in Tourism, 6(5), 369-414.
    • Fallah Tafti, Hamed & Heidari Kushkeno, Majid. (2019). Evaluating the quality of tourist office services based on clients' perceptions, case study: Yazd city. Tourism and Development Quarterly, 8(1), 210-230. (in Farsi).
    • Farzin, Mohammad Reza, & Nadalipour, Zahra. (2010). Factors Affecting the Competitive Advantage of Tourist Destinations in Iran (Case Study: Chabahar Region). Journal of Tourism Management Studies, 5 (14), 40-67. (in Farsi).
    • Farzin, Mohammad Reza, Shekari, Fatemeh, & Azizi, Fatemeh. (2019). Competitiveness of tourism destination: importance-performance analysis (Case Study: Yazd and Shiraz). Tourism Management Studies, 13(44), 219-247. (in Farsi).
    • Germann Molz, J. (2012). Travel connections: Tourism, technology and togheterness in a mobile London: Routledge.
    • Goffi, G., Cucculelli, M., & Masiero, L. (2019). Fostering tourism destination competitiveness in developing countries: The role of sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209, 101-115.
    • Goffi, Gianluca. (2013). A model of tourism destination competitiveness: The case of the Italian destinations of excellence. Anuario Turismo y Sociedad, 10, 121-147. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267331295.
    • Hosseini, Mirza Hassan, & Sazvar, Azam. (2010). Improving the quality of tourism services in Yazd from the perspective of foreign tourists. Quarterly Journal of Tourism Studies. 7(16), 117-141. (in Farsi).
    • Makian, Seyyed Nizamuddin, & Naderibani, Mahmoud. (2003). A study of foreign tourism in Yazd City. Bi-Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, 62, 195-205. (in Farsi).
    • Makian, Seyyed Nizamuddin, & Naderibani, Mahmoud. (2004). Investigating the situation of domestic tourism in Yazd city, Quarterly Journal of Tourism Studies, 4, 1-16. (in Farsi).
    • Maleki, Saeed, & Movadat, Elias. (2014). An analysis on the distribution and prioritization of tourism infrastructure in Yazd Province using planning techniques. Quarterly Journal of Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, 15(24), 47-68. (in Farsi).
    • Marchiori, Elena, & Cantori, Lorenzo. (2015). The role of prior experience in the perception of a tourism destination in user-generated content. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4 194-201.
    • Michael, Noela, Reisinger, Yvette, & Hayes, John P. (2019). The UAE's tourism competitiveness: A business perspective. Tourism Management Perspectives, 30, 53–64.
    • Mirtaghian Rudsari, Seyed Mohammad. (1398). Pathology of the application of structural equations in Iranian tourism research. Journal of Tourism and Development, 8(3), 124-146. (in Farsi).
    • Mohsenin, Shahriar, & Esfidani, Mohammad Rahim. (2014). Structural equations based on the partial least squares approach - using Smart-PLS software. Tehran: Mehraban Nashr. First Edition. (in Farsi).
    • Morvati Sharifabadi, Ali, Abu Hashemabadi, Farzaneh, & Asadian Ardakani, Faezeh. (2016). Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the development of Yazd tourism industry with fuzzy VIKOR approach. Tourism and Development Quarterly, 5(7), 129-147. (in Farsi).
    • Mottaqi, Samira, Sadeghi, Mohammad, & Delalat, Morad. (2017). The role of security in the development of international tourism (Case study: foreign tourists in Yazd). Urban Tourism Quarterly, 3(1), 77-91. (in Farsi).
    • Movahed, Ali, Shamaei, Ali, Sasanpour, Farzaneh, Arjmandi, Mansour. (2021). An Analysis of Sustainable Urban Tourism Capacities, Case Study: Yazd, Quarterly Journal of Geography, Iranian Geographical Association, 18(67), 40-56. (in Farsi)
    • Mullah Hosseini Ardakani, Reza, Sayyah Alborzi, Hedayat, & Sayyah, Mohsen. (2019). Identify and analyze the factors affecting the challenges and opportunities of social security of foreign tourism in Yazd using SWOT. Social Order Research Quarterly,10(4), 147-170. (in Farsi).
    • Murgante, Beniamino, & Borruso, Giuseppe. (2013). Cities and smartness: A critical analysis of opportunities and risks. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 630–642 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237073200_Cities_and_Smartness_A_Critical_Analysis_of_Opportunities_and_Risks).
    • Park, Sangwon, Kim, & Dae-Young. (2017). Assessing language discrepancies between travelers and online travel recommendation systems: Application of the Jaccard distance score to web data mining. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123, 381–388.
    • Planning and Budget Office of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts. (1396). Statistics of tourists entering the accommodation places of the provinces. (in Farsi).
    • Razeghi, Ali Reza, & Horandi, Bahareh. (2018). Analysis of architectural heritage revival experiences based on measuring the audience's satisfaction, case study: revival experiences with residential-tourism use in the historical context of Yazd. Bimonthly Quarterly Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Arts, 20, 69-83. (in Farsi).
    • Ritchie, B. J. R., & Crouch, G. I. (2003). The competitive destination; A sustainable tourism perspective. UK: CABI Publishing.
    • Romãoa, J., Kourtit, K., Neuts, B., & Nijkamp, P. (2018). The smart city as a common place for tourists and residents: A structural analysis of the determinants of urban attractiveness. Cities, 78, 67–75.
    • Shafiee, Sanaz, Rajabzadeh Ghatarib, Ali, Hasanzadeh, Alireza, & Jahanyan, Saeed. (2019). Developing a model for sustainable smart tourism destinations: A systematic review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 287–300.
    • Sung, Tae Kyung. (2015). The creative economy in global competition. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 96, 89–91.
    • Van hove, Norbert. (2005). The economics of tourism destinations. UK: Elsevier Publishing.
    • Zare Ashkezari, Seyed Mohammad, Saghaei, Mohsen, Mousavi, Mir Najaf, & Mukhtari Malekabadi, Reza. (2015). Factors affecting the development of cultural tourism with the approach of attracting foreign tourists in central Iran, Case Study: Yazd City. Quarterly Journal of Geography and Urban-Regional Planning, 17, 189-208. (in Farsi).