اثرات گردشگری کشاورزی بر توسعه کارآفرینی روستایی با محوریت توسعه پایدار (مطالعه موردی :روستاهای شاخص استان یزد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی دانشکده سما یزد-دانشگاه آزاد یزد

2 دانشیار گروه کسب وکارجدید،دانشکده کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در حال حاضر گردشگری وکارآفرینی روستایی به عنوان یکی از بزرگ ترین صنایع دنیا مطرح بوده ورشد سریع آن تغییرات اجتماعی ،اقتصادی ومحیطی فراوانی را به دنبال داشته است .گردشگریی روستایی ،ابزاری کارآمد می باشد که منجر به افزایش بهره وری وکارآمدی نیروی انسانی وتوسعه روستایی می گردد.گردشگری کشاورزی نیز به عنوان زیر مجموعه ای از گردشگری روستایی،راهبردی جهت توسعه روستایی بوده وباعث کاهش مشکلات جوامع روستایی مانند بیکاری ،بهره وری پایین کشاورزی،مهاجرت روز افزون به شهرها خصوصادر مناطق نیمه بیابانی مانند روستاهای استان یزد می شود.هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی عوامل موثر بر توسعه کارآفرینی روستایی متاثر از گردشگری کشاورزی در روستاهای شاخص استان یزد می باشد.این پژوهش از نظر ماهیت توصیفی –تحلیلی واز نظر هدف کاربردی ودارای رویکرد کمی است.نمونه آماری پژوهش 384 نفر از ساکنان ،خبرگان محلی ،دهیاران ومدیران صنعت گردشگری با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری کوکران از بین ساکنین 30 روستای شاخص استان یزد انتخاب وابزار اصلی پژوهش ،پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که روایی آن با نظر اساتید دانشگاه در حوزه گردشگری تایید وپایایی آن نیز بر اساس ضریب آلفای کورنباخ 783/. بدست آمد.تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار Smart PLS2.0 وSpss22صورت گرفت ویافته ها نشان می دهند که متغیرهایی چون روستا،گردشگر،کشاورزومزرعه یا باغ از پیشرانهای اولیه (ارکان)گردشگری کشاورزی بوده وو نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که متغیرهایی همچوزیر ساخت ها،حمایتهای دولتی،انگیزه گردشگران وآموزش آنها با محوریت گردشگری کشاورزی عامل توسعه روستایی با نتایج اثر بخش (رشد وتوسعه اقتصادی،اجتماعی وفرهنگی،توسعه وتحول وتوسعه فرهنگ کار وکارآفرینی ) می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Agro Tourism on Rural Entrepreneurship Development with a Focus on Sustainable Development : A Case Study: (Significant Villages of Yazd Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Fotoohi 1
  • Gholamhossein Hosseini nia 2
  • Seyed Mojtaba Sajjadi 2
1 Faculty of Sama Yazd College-Yazd Azad University
2 - Associate Professor, Department of New Business, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran,
چکیده [English]

Geography is the link between humans and the environment, and the balance between the two will lead to the stability of the environment. Tourism operates within the framework of a special spatial model, which is one of these spatial models of sustainable tourism. The development of the tourism industry, especially in less developed countries, is an effective factor in combating poverty and increases the incomes of different groups, reduces unemployment and economic prosperity, and thus improves the quality of life of people and increases social welfare. Tourism is not only considered as a potential tool to solve some problems in rural areas, but also as an integral element of rural development strategy. The village, the first permanent human settlement, the place of activities Agriculture and the work environment, effort, production and other efforts of human productivity of the land.Rural development is a multidimensional phenomenon that today requires policy to focus on the development of innovative ideas and projects It is a business initiative in rural areasRural tourism is one of the types of tourism that is associated with many other patterns of tourism, but its characteristic feature is the establishment in rural areas and its expansion has led to the introduction of modern methods of agriculture in rural areas and a very important source for skilled labor , Especially poor rural women and immigrants in the field of tourism and agriculture. Meanwhile, agri tourism, as a type of rural tourism, with significant effects on local motivation and economy, opportunities for diversification of activities, ultimately leads to increased public awareness. In terms of the importance of agriculture in improving life and also plays an important role in the sustainable development of agriculture in rural and urban areas.Therefore, agricultural tourism (agrotourism or agrotourism) has often been proposed as a sustainable development option to revive the rural economy and diversify income sources . By examining the potential of agricultural and tourism activities By combining these two elements under the title of agricultural tourism, it can be presented in line with the theory of sustainable tourism and a new strategy for the development of rural areas, which can be a factor for sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas,be in different villages..
At present, tourism is one of the largest and most diverse industries in the world and its rapid growth has led to many social, economic and environmental changes. Rural tourism is an effective tool that leads to increased productivity and efficiency of human resources, prevention Their migration in order to create new job opportunities, the interaction of cultures and rural development. Agri tourism as a subset of rural tourism is a strategy for rural development and reduces the problems of rural communities such as unemployment, low agricultural productivity, migration. Increasingly, cities and suburbs, especially in arid and semi-desert areas such as villages in Yazd province The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the development of rural entrepreneurship affected by agricultural tourism in the index villages and the purpose of tourism in Yazd province Which can be a factor for sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas. From the perspective of agriculture, agricultural tourism means expanding farm operations, using agricultural products in new and innovative ways, improving the flow of farm income and The development of new consumer markets is known. As a result, awareness of local agricultural products and the importance of preserving agricultural land through agri tourism increases.. , Local experts, villagers and managers of tourism industry using Cochran sampling method from among the residents of 30 key villages of Yazd province, the main research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by university professors in the field of tourism and its reliability was based on alpha coefficient.Cornbach 783 /. Was obtained. Data analysis was performed using Smart PLS2.0 and Spss22 software and the research results were presented using a one-sample t-test and structural equation modeling. Economic, social and cultural development indicate that the findings show that variables such as village, tourist, farmer or garden are among the primary drivers (pillars) of agricultural tourism and despite these four pillars of agricultural tourism has become meaningful And the research results indicate that variables such as structures, government support, tourists' motivation,cultural and their education with the focus on agricultural tourism are factors in rural development with effective results (economic and social and cultural growth and , development and development of work culture and entrepreneurship).
Keywords: Agri Tourism ; Development, Leading Villages of Yazd: Rural Entrepreneurship ;Rural Tourism

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agro Tourism؛ Development
  • Leading Villages of Yazd: Rural Entrepreneurship؛ Rural Tourism
- Ali Gholizadeh ,N(2019) .Impact of rural tourism development on agriculture sector (Case study: plain rural area of Mian band county in Noor township). Journal of Tourism Planning and Development; 8(30) : 111-124. (In Farsi) .
- Amiri, S,  Ehsanifar,   T, (2016). Presenting a conceptual model to study the impact of agricultural tourism on entrepreneurial development, Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, Volume 3, Issue 1. (In Farsi).                                                   
-Ciolac,  R.; Adamov, T.; Iancu, T.; Popescu, G.; Lile, R.; Rujescu, C.; Marin, D(2019). Agritourism-A Sustainable Development Factor for Improving the ‘Health’ of Rural Settlements. Case Study Apuseni Mountains Area. Journal of Sustainability,11,1467.pp.1-24
-Davari,A,Rezazadeh,A,(2013) Structural  Equation  Modeling   with    PLS
.Tehran.JD.Book 
-Doh,K,Park,S,Dae,Y,(2017) .Antecedents and Consequence of managerial behavior in Agritourism.Tourism Management,61,511-522
-Ebrahimi I. (2016). Rural tourism as a model for rural development (case study of Garmsar city). Journal of New Attitudes in Human Geography, 9 (1) , 207-224. (In Farsi)
 
- Evgrafova,L,V,; A Z Ismailova , A Z and VL Kalinichev,(2020). Agrotourism as a factor of sustainable rural development.IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 421, Issue 2.pp.115-136
- Fallah, N. (2017). 'Rural Entrepreneurship Development Pyramid Based on the Principles of EU Rural Development Policies', Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 4 (1) , pp. 115-131. (In Farsi) .
 
- Ghanian, M, Khani, F, Baqaei, L. (2012). 'Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Rural Tourism (Case Study: Oraman Region) ', Rural Research, 2 (7) , pp. 99-123. (In Farsi) .
-Harpa,E,Moica,S,and Dana,R(2015) .A predictive model of innovation in rural entrepreneurship .Procedia Technology,19,pp,471-478
-Hatley,L(2009.The nature of agritourism in the Buffalo City Municipality.Penisula.Second Edition.University of TechnologyPress.468pp
 
- Heidari, A.A., Rowshan, S.A., & Naderi, N. (2020) .[The Effect of Tourism Marketin on the Development of Rural Entrepreneurship in Rijab Region of Kermanshah Province Journal of Rural Research,10(4) ,pp, 582-595, (In Farsi) .
 
-Hen.w.Suet.L(2019) , Banghuris Homestay Program In Selangor                        : A Theoretical Framework,, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research,  Vol. No. 3, pp. 315-343
-Jalalian H, namdari F, pashazadeh A(2015). Effects of Rural Tourism on Rural Development: Hajij Village in Kermanshah. researches in Geographical Sciences.; 15 (36) pp :205-228. (In Farsi) .
- Karimi, S. (2014). 'Agricultural Tourism Entrepreneurship, a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development', Entrepreneurship Agriculture, 1 (4) , pp.69-90(In Farsi) .
-Kai Wah, Chea, Chiam & Wah, Hen & Wui, Lim & Hen, Kai Wah & Low, Suet Cheng. (2019). Banghuris Homestay Program In Selangor: A Theoretical Framework.Journal of ResearchGate.pp316-346.
- Kariz Electronic Journal,(2020) ,Yazd.maj.ir.pp.25-28
 
- Kürüm Varolgüneş, F & Doğan, E & Varolgüneş, S. (2017). The Role of Traditional Architecture in the Development of Rural Tourism: The Case of Turkey. International Journal of Scientific Research. 5.pp110-121
Lai,P.& Napal,S.K. (2018) .”Local perspectives of ecotourism development in Tawushan Nature Reserve, Taiwan”.Journal of Tourism Management,Vol.27 .pp,258-271
- Lupi,C. Giaccio, V. Mastronardi,L. Giannelli,A. Scardera, A. (2017). Exploring the features of agritourism and its contribution to ruraldevelopment in Italy, Land Use Policy 64 .pp383–390.
-Lili ,W, (2017). Investigating the development of agritourism in Vingjian province.Asian Agriculture Reserch2017,9(4) .pp.95
- Mahaliyanaarachchi, R.P, (2017). Agrotourism Segment of Rural Tourism, Department of Agribusiness Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka Belihuloya.T.R.by.Dr.S.H.Motiei Langroudi..University of Tehran Press.pp89-97
-.Mahmoudi Chenari, H., Motiee Langroudi, S.H., Faraji Shabbarbar, H.A., Ghadiri Massoum, M., & Yasoori, M(2020) .[Assessing the Capacity of Masal Rural Environment for the Development of Agritourism (Persian) ]. Journal of RuralResearch, 10(4) , pp,596-613(In Farsi) .
- Motiee Langrudi, H, Nosrati, M. (2012). 'Feasibility Study of Tourism Development in Rural Areas from the Perspective of Tourists (Karganrood District of Talesh County) ', Geography and Environmental Planning,  (22-1.pp 69-84. (In Farsi) .
-Nair, V.; Munikrishnan, U. T.; Rajaratnam, S. D.; King, N. (2015) , Redefining rural tourism in Malaysia: a conceptual perspective, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 314-337
-ostanyazd.ir/web/ostandari/asli//asset_publisher/pkk6z5A22HBA/rss
-Olya.h,Aand dalir,S(2014) .An Entrepreneurs Tourism Project through Agro-Tourism Farm In Iran.Journal of Sustainable Development Studies.6;pp.48-63
-Papoli Yazdi, M; Ebrahimi, M, (2008). Rural DevelopmentTheories, Tehran,samt. , p306(In Farsi) .
- Petrović, M & Gelbman, A & Demirović, D & Gagić, S. (2017). The examination of the residents’ activities and dedication to the local community  an agritourism access to the subject. Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA. 67.pp. 37-52.
- Poor Jafar, M., Mahmoudi Nejad, H, (2012) , A meta-analysis of the evaluation of rural tourism development approaches with emphasis on the analysis of SWOT strategic factors, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Volume 14, Number 2, pp35-56. (In Farsi) .
- Qaragoslou, B, Islami .SY, (2017). place in agricultural tourism; case study, Tuscany, 5th.International Congress on Civil Engineering , Architecture and Urban Development 26-28 December 2017, Shahid Beheshti University , Tehran , Iran(In Farsi) ..
- Rezaei M. (2015). Feasibility study of the implementation of the plan of agritourism in Nazwan natural park in Isfahan, Master's thesis of geography, Department of Urban Planning, Isfahan University.pp258-274. (In Farsi)
- Rezvani, M. R., Faraji Sabokbar, H. A., Darban Astaneh, A., & Karimi, S. H. (2017). [Identification and Validation of Effective Indicators and Factors of Environmental Quality in Branding of Rural Tourism Destinations Using Thematic analysis Method (Case: Ethno-cultural Region of Oramanat in Kurdistan and Kermanshah) ]. Journal of Rural Research, 8(2) :318-345. (In Farsi)
- Rostami F, Ehsanifar, T. (2018) 'Rural Development Entrepreneurship Development Programs, Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 5 (2) , pp. 71-82. (In Farsi)
-Sarai, M, Alizadeh S, Yahya, Rezaei, M. Identifying the key drivers of effective tourism in sustainable tourism and formulating the most desirable scenario (case study: Meybod historical city). Geographical explorations of desert areas, 1399; 8 (1) :pp, 113-131.
-Salahi Isfahani, G. (1397). Agricultural tourism with a focus on sustainable rural development Case study: Pomegranate of Qardin village - Saveh. Geographical Area of ​​Tourism, 7 (27) , 87-97. (In Farsi).
- Samani Ghotbabadi, S. Torabi Farsani, N. Shafiei, Z. (2018). Business potentials resulting from agricultural tourism in Jahrom city. Entrepreneurship Journal in Agriculture, Winter, Volume 4, Number1.pp.118-138. (In Farsi)
-. Singh, A. K. (2010). Agri-tourism entrepreneurship: a tool to rural development. International Referred Research Journal, 2, pp.12-38
 
-Songkhla, T. N. (2012). Impact of agro-tourism on local agricultural occupation: A case study of Chang Klang district, southern Thailand. ASEAN Journal on Hospitality and Tourism, 11(2) , 98-109
- Shahnaz, H. (2018). Rural to urban migration in Pakistan the gender perspective, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Working Papers: 56pp.472-498.
Yazdan panah,M(2018) MultifunctionalAgriculture Paradigm  ;Rural Tourism a key to sustainable  employment development in rural areas. Journal of Entrepreneurship in AgricultureVol. 5(1) ,pp,35-56 (In Farsi)