عنوان مقاله [English]
An important part of the rural economic activities is related to tourism, which is one of the levers of rural development. The development of rural tourism is a new strategy for the prosperity of the rural economy. Since security is the most basic principle in formulating tourism development strategies, therefore, the main issue of the current research is the analysis of the role of security in the tourism development in desert villages in Sorkheh Township. The research is a survey that is done by descriptive-analytical method and the main data collection tool is a questionnaire that has been completed by the statistical community (170 non-native tourists). In order to investigate the affecting components in security in the development of rural tourism, T. test was used. Examination of the mean differences of the variables shows that the items of spatial, racial and landscape stability components are in a better position than other items. The correlation between security indicators in the development of rural tourism in the region is equal to 0.789, which indicates the ability to explain 79% of the changes (variance). Analysis of variance ANOVA and Fisher test showed that there is no significant difference between the villages of Sorkheh Township in terms of political and environmental indicators. Based on the WASPAS and ARAS techniques, the two villages of Biabank and Lasjerd are in the first place in terms of research indicators and development sustainability indicators. The research findings show that the security of tourists based on research indicators is higher in Biabank and Lasjerd villages and these two villages are more developed than other villages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to improve the security of tourists in other villages.
One of the new economic opportunities in rural areas is the tourism industry, which is growing rapidly due to global needs. Creating employment, foreign exchange, regional balance, contributing to world peace and investing in cultural heritage, improving the environment, helping to improve wildlife habitats, developing rural areas with tourist attractions and preventing out-of-town migration and the like are among the benefits. Security is the first condition for human life and living in a place. If a place is not safe, it is uninhabitable, and it is not possible to provide a healthy economy until security prevails in a country. Tourism security is: the perceived or real security of the tourist when traveling to a specific destination that has social, political, economic, cultural and physical dimensions. Security is the most fundamental principle in formulating tourism development strategies. There is a relationship between rural tourism, stability, security and rural development. The prosperity of tourism follows the development of the village and the development of the village guarantees the security of the village. Since security has a tremendous impact on tourism development and especially the motivation of private sector investment in rural areas, so the present study aims to analyze the role of security in the development of tourism in desert villages in Sorkheh Township.
The methodology of this research is based on observable and testable facts. Due to the nature of the subject, the present study is applied and has been conducted in a documentary-survey manner. The statistical population of the study was non-native tourists who visited the villages of Sorkheh Township in the spring of 2019. In order to identify the factors affecting the safety of tourists in the studied villages, after a survey of rural planning experts and also reviewing the research literature, 5 components and 42 final criteria were identified. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaire questions were designed taking into account the objectives of the research and the opinions of experts and key components obtained from library studies. The main constructs of research variables include security in social, political, economic, cultural and environmental dimensions. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and ARS and WASPAS techniques.
Analysis of the status of tourist security indicators with t-test in the region showed that all research indicators are in good condition. The items of spatial component, racial component and landscape stability component are in a better position than other items. The correlation between security indicators in rural tourism in the region is equal to 0.789, which means that the mentioned indicators have the ability to explain 78% of the changes (variance). Analysis of regression variance model shows that there is a significant relationship between different indicators (social, political, cultural, economic and environmental) at 95% confidence level. In fact, each of these indicators can be important in the security situation in the tourism of the studied villages. Analysis of variance ANOVA and F-test were performed and it was found that in political and environmental indicators, the amount of alpha error (Sig) of analysis of variance is more than the acceptable error (0.05). This means that there is no significant difference between the villages of Sorkheh Township in terms of these indicators in tourism security. Based on the WASPAS technique, it was determined that the villages of Lasjerd and Biabank (with Q_i = 0.1198) have gained the first rank in terms of security indicators in rural tourism. Also, according to ARAS technique, these two villages are in the first rank among other villages of Sorkheh Township in terms of development sustainability.
Discussion and conclusion
The security of villages and tourists at the time of the survey (Spring 1398) is desirable due to the appropriate presence of police and law enforcement forces in the area and the significant activity of traffic police on Township roads, follow-up and activities of health centers and cultural heritage in ecotourism houses, neighborhoods Accommodation for tourists and shopping centers. According to the results of this study, the level of feeling of security of tourists in rural areas of this Township is a result of the physical spaces of villages (morphology and formation of buildings, passages in rural areas) and socio-cultural spaces of villages (moral actions of villagers).