ارزیابی اثرات حکمروایی خوب روستایی بر زیست پذیری روستاهای گردشگرپذیر مطالعه موردی روستای تمندان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد یادگار امام شهر ری

2 دانشگاه پیام نور نیکشهر

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی اثرات حکمروایی خوب روستایی بر زیست پذیری روستاهای گردشگرپذیر تمندان است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش کار توصیفی- تحلیلی است که به دو روش مطالعه کتابخانه‌ای و پیمایشی میدانی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را تمام مردم روستای تمندان که بر طبق سرشماری سال 1395، 272 نفر است تشکیل می‌دهد که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران به تعداد 160 پرسشنامه به‌صورت تصادفی ساده تکمیل‌شده است. جهت روایی پرسشنامه‌ از نظرات اساتید و کارشناسان مربوطه استفاده شده است. همچنین جهت بدست آوردن پایایی پرسنامه از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شده است. مقدار آلفای کرونباخ بدست آمده برای شاخص‌های حکمروایی برابر 84/0 و برای شاخص‌های زیست-پذیری 81/0 بدست آمده است.برای تجزیه و تحلیل یافته‌های پژوهش از آزمون تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آزمون تی تک نمونه‌ای استفاده شده است.نتایج آزمون تی تک نمونه‌ای نشان داد که وضعیت حکمروایی خوب روستایی با میانگین 884/2 در روستای تمندان پایین‌تر از حد مطلوب و وضعیت زیست‌پذیری با میانگین 100/3 بالا‌تر از حد مطلوب ارزیابی شده است. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین شاخص‌های حکمروایی و زیست‌پذیری ارتباط قوی و معناداری برقرار است شاخص برابری با ضریب همبستگی 676/0 بیشترین رابطه و همبستگی را با زیست‌پذیری و شاخص آگاهی اجتماعی با ضریب همبستگی 556/0 کمترین رابطه و همبستگی با زیست‌پذیری را دارد.همچنین نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که حکمروایی بیشترین تاثیر را با ضریب بتای 365/0 برمتغیر اجتماعی دارد و کمترین تاثیر را با ضریب بتای 132/0 بر متغیر زیست محیطی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the effects of good rural governance on the viability of tourist villages Case study of Tamandan village

نویسندگان [English]

  • sajjad bazvand 1
  • mohammadkarim raesi 2
1 Islamic Azad University, Yadegar Branch of Imam Shahr_ray
2 Faculty member of Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The world today is struggling with many issues and problems that it is not able to solve these problems, although sometimes solutions are offered by networks to solve these problems, but they can not completely solve these problems. And requires the collective and common wisdom of global actors. For decades, rural areas around the world have faced challenges such as declining economic activity, restructuring traditional agricultural industries, aging populations and migrating young people abroad for higher education, and reducing the quality of life in small towns and villages. The effective performance of public administration units is considered a condition for the development of regions, countries and communities. This well-known model provides the basis for the principles of good governance proposed by the World Bank in the 1990s. Governance has emerged as an alternative to traditional methods of governance and governance, and has emerged as a political structure or organization and NGOs to address policy issues and can serve as decision-making processes. Define a group of governmental and non-governmental actors to deal with different situations
Methodology
This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of nature and method of descriptive-analytical work, which is done in two ways: library study and field survey. In the descriptive study section, the library method has the main application because the theoretical foundations of research and aristocracy on the subject of research are available and documented only by reviewing existing studies and researches. It is also possible to know the current situation of the study area by describing what exists. The statistical population of the study consists of all the people of Tamandan village, which according to the 2016 census, is 272 people. Using the Cochran's formula, 160 questionnaires were completed randomly in such a way that each element of the target community was selected Are equal. It should be noted that the number of samples was selected from people over 18 years. For the validity of the questionnaire in the present study, the formal method has been used to increase the degree of validity. For this purpose, the questionnaire was given to experts, specialists and professors after compilation, and after collecting their opinions, the necessary corrections were made. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was also used to obtain the reliability of the questionnaire. The obtained Cronbach's alpha value for governance indices is 0.84 and for viability indices is 0.81. Multivariate regression analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and one-sample t-test were used to analyze the findings.
Discussion and Results
The descriptive results of the study show that 50 respondents, equal to 30% of the frequency, are women and 110 respondents, equal to 70% of the frequency, are men. 57 people were married with 36% of the frequency and 103 people were married with 64% of the frequency. The lowest frequency is related to the age group of 20-30 years with a frequency of 16 people, 10% of the frequency and the highest frequency is related to the age group of 30-40 years with a frequency of 46 people, which is 29% of the frequency. . The highest frequency percentage is related to the diploma group with 39% and the lowest frequency percentage with 3% is related to the master's degree group and higher. The highest frequency is related to farmers with 35% and the lowest percentage is related to the occupational group of employees with 8% of frequency. The highest frequency percentage with 31% is related to the income of 700 thousand Tomans up to 1 million Tomans and the lowest frequency percentage with 10% is related to the income group higher than 2.5 million Tomans.
Conclusion
The results of the studies indicate that if good governance in the villages is in a good and desirable condition, it will undoubtedly increase the livelihood in the villages, which will prevent the migration of villagers to the cities. Improving the quality of life of the villagers, providing appropriate infrastructure in the village, reducing tensions and interactions among the villagers, creating green and pleasant spaces in the villages, involving the villagers in rural development projects and consulting with them, providing A safe and secure environment that leads to peace of mind for the villagers, increasing the sense of place among the villagers, increasing the level of trust among the villagers towards the village managers, providing desirable health and educational facilities in the village and providing conditions in the village for rural employment In the rural environment, all the factors that rural managers can provide in the form of good governance in the village and improve livability in the village, otherwise the livability in the village is reduced and the villagers seek to increase Quality of life will inevitably migrate from the village, which will cause instability in the village.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "governance"
  • "good rural governance"
  • " viability"
  • " tourist villages"
  • "Tamandan village"
  • References:

    • Akhondi Qahroudi, M., Nazari, A. H., Rostami, Sh., and Salahi Esfahani, G. (2020). Spatial analysis of economic viability in rural settlements of Rey city, Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 245-265. (in Farsi)
    • Fattahi, K., and Mohammadi, E. (2020). Identifying barriers to tourism in the village of Hyderabad Sivan, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 59, pp. 211-226.(in farsi).
    • Ghadermarzi, H., and Jamini, D. (2017). Evaluating the performance of modern rural management with a good governance approach and providing solutions to improve it in rural areas: A case study of Shaho ward, Ravansar city, Journal of Rural Research and Planning, Vol. 6, NO. 2, 18 , Pp. 111-123. (in Farsi)
    • Ghorbani, M. (2019). Validation analysis of the dimensions of livability of the local community in the study area of Ghale Ganj city of Kerman province, Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, Vol. 51-2, No. 2, pp. 243-261. (in Farsi)
    • Hakim Dost, S. Y., Moradi, M., Rostami, Sh., and Nazari, A. M. (2018). Spatial analysis of livability in border villages of Helmand city with emphasis on passive defense, Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development, Vol. 7, NO. 4, pp. 101-126. (in Farsi)
    • Hakim Doust, S.Y. (2018). Sustainable Spatial Model of Rural Settlements in Border Areas, PhD Thesis, Payame Noor University, Department of Geography, Rural Planning, Tehran. (in Farsi)
    • Heidari Sarban, V. (2019). Evaluation of rural local management model based on good governance indicators Case study of Meshginshahr city, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 57, pp. 133-154. (in Farsi)
    • Hesam, M., Rezvani, M. , and Ashour, H. (2014). Measuring the satisfaction of villagers with the performance of villagers with the approach of good rural validity: a case study of villages in the southern part of Gorgan, Journal of Space Geography, Vol. 4, NO. 14, pp. 99-128. (in Farsi)
    • Ismailzadeh, H., Koozegar, L., and Adinehvand, A. A. (2016).A meta-analysis of research in the field of urban governance in Iran, Journal of Spatial Planning and Planning, Vol.20, No. 2, pp. 1-40. (in Farsi)
    • Jafari, N., Barghi, H., and Ghanbari, Y. (2019). Assessing the effects of social capital on governance in rural areas Case study of rural areas of Zanjan, Journal of Planning Studies of Human Settlements, Vol.14, No. 1 (46), pp. 75-91. (in Farsi)
    • Jaja, J. M.(2014). Good governance in rural areas: challenges for social security, Social Science Journal, Sci. 71 , pp. 25153-25157.
    • Kevin Lo, Jie Li, Mark Wang, Cong Li, Shuzhuo Li & Ying Li .(2019). A Comparative Analysis of Participating and Non-Participating Households in Pro-Poor Tourism in Southern Shaanxi, China, Tourism Planning & Development, 16:3, 318-333, DOI:1080/21568316.2018.1490340.
    • Khorasani, M. A. (2018). Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Residents and Local Managers' Perspectives on the Viability of Suburban Villages in Varamin County, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 51, pp. 261-280. (in Farsi)
    • Khoshfar, Gh., Shayan, M., and Khodad, M. (2019). An Analysis of Rural Management Performance with Emphasis on Good Governance Indicators: A Case Study of Villages in Zarrin Dasht County, Journal of Socio-Cultural Development Studies, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 9-35. (in Farsi)
    • Kosec, K., and Wantchekon, L. (2020). Can information improve rural governance and service delivery?, World Development Journal, pp.1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.07.017.
    • Lee, T. H., and Jan, F. H. (2019). Can community-based tourism contribute to sustainable development? Evidence from residents’ perceptions of the sustainability, Tourism Management Journal, Vol. 70, pp. 368-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.09.003.
    • Liu, Ch., Dou, X., Li, J., and Cai, L. A. (2020). Analyzing government role in rural tourism development: An empirical investigation from China, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 79, pp. 177–188.
    • Matthew, O. A., Ede, Ch., Osabohien, O., Ejemeyovwi, J., Ayanda, T., and Okunbor, j. (2019). Interaction Effect of Tourism and Foreign Exchange Earnings on Economic Growth in Nigeria, Sagepub Journal, PP.1-16. DOI: 10.1177/0972150918812985.
    • Momeni, A., Jahanshiri, M., and Azmi, A. (2020). The effects of good governance on the livability of Adran suburban settlements, Journal of suburban urban development, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 193-205. (in Farsi)
    • Nazari, A. (2018). Rereading the Systematic and Reflective Approach to the Structural-Functional Scanning Approach, in: Essays on Geography and Spatial-Spatial Planning, by Mostafa Taleshi, House of Humanities Thinkers, First Edition. (in Farsi)
    • Pazaki, M., Sheikhi, D.,and Samadi Moghadam, Sh. (2020). Role Analysis Based on Good Governance in Sustainable Rural Development: A Case Study of Filistan Rural District of Pakdasht County, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 58, pp. 93-112. (in Farsi)
    • Rahmani Fazli, A. R., Monshizadeh, Ra., and Alipourian, J. (2017). Analysis of the position of rural management based on good governance in sustainable rural development: A case study comparing the central part of Kuhdasht and Lavasanat Shemiranat, Journal of Rural Research and Planning, Vol. 6, No. 1, (17) , Pp. 133-152. (in Farsi)
    • Rahmani Fazli, A. R., Manshizadeh, R., and Alipourian, J. (2017). Analysis of the position of rural management based on good governance in sustainable rural development: A case study comparing the central part of Kuhdasht and Lavasanat Shemiranat, Journal of Rural Research and Planning, Vol.6, NO. 1, 17, Pp. 133-152. (in Farsi)
    • Rokanuddin Eftekhari, A. R., Azimi Amoli, J., Pourtaheri, M., and Ahmadipour, Z. (2012). Presenting an Appropriate Model of Good Rural Governance in Iran, Geopolitical Quarterly, Vol. 8, NO. 2, pp. 1-28. (in Farsi)
    • Ruimu, A.N., & Jong, M. (2016). A network Governance approach to transitoriented development: Intrgrating urban transport and landuse policiesin Urumqi, China. Journal of Elsevier, 52, 55-63.
    • Ruth, M. & Franklin, R.S. (2014), Livability for all? Conceptual limits and practical implicationsq. Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apgeog. Applied Geography, pp. 49. 18-23.
    • Sarker, M.N.I., Hossin, A., Min, W., Aktaruzzaman, M. (2018). Poverty Alleviation of Rural People through Good Governance in Bangladesh, The Journal of Social Sciences Research, Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 547-555.
    • Sejasi Gheidari, H., Sadeghloo, T., and Mahmoudi, H. (2019). Ranking of villages based on viability indicators: A case study of Nezamabad rural area of Azadshahr city, Journal of Human Geography Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 129-144. (in Farsi)
    • Szumowski, W. (2019). Good Governance In Municipal and Rural Municipal Offices Of Local Administration In Poland, Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, Vol. 41. No. 2, pp.135-152.
    • Wang, L., and Yotsumoto, Y. (2019). Conflict in tourism development in rural China, Tourism Management Journal, Vol. 70, pp. 188-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.08.012.
    • Yousefipour, S. Y. (2019). Investigating the Effects of Local Community Empowerment on Rural Tourism Development (Case Study: Tamandan Village, Khash County), M.Sc. Thesis, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Faculty of Geography and Environmental Planning, Program Rizi Rural, Zahedan. (in Farsi)
    • Zangisheh, K., Estalaji, A., and Falahatbar, N. (2018). Explaining the viability of villages in the metropolitan area of Tehran, Journal of Geography, New Vol., No. 16, No. 58, pp. 214-239. (in Farsi).