عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The role of agricultural activities is vital in the livelihood of rural households. In recent years, the draught-induced damage of the rural economy has led to social and economic instability in rural settlements. In this regard, due to the vulnerability of rural settlements in the face of drought, it is necessary to take measures to reduce it. Drought vulnerability is of physical, environmental, economic and social types with direct and indirect effects on welfare, the price of agricultural products and the cost of living. This leads to rural migration, instability and depopulation of villages. Therefore, various measures can be taken to reduce vulnerability. In this regard, in different countries, water conservation measures are a priority which aims to maintain the existing water resources in a cost-effective manner. So, by doing different water projects, they have tried to make the most of the available water. In addition, diversification of villagers’ income is another main solution to reduce drought vulnerability. This is because the extent to which farmers adapt to drought depends on their capital; farmers with more capital have more power to deal with climate change. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of drought control measures in different sectors in a systematic way.
Methodology: This research is a descriptive-analytical study based on library and field surveys of rural households. The data collection tool was a questionnaire, and the items were evaluated on the Likert scale. The inferential analysis is the structural analysis of Smart PLS. Factor analysis was done through focal correlation, multivariate regression and path analysis. In such a way, the direct and indirect effects of the variables could be estimated. The variables in this study were considered in different dimensions, and, thus, multivariate regression had to be used for them. The effectiveness of the measures to reduce vulnerability was also assessed.
Results and Discussion: According to the research results, drought and agriculture management measures have the highest correlation with the reduction of vulnerability. Indeed, drought risk management measures have a positive effect on drought reduction. In this regard, the role of drought control measures in reducing the vulnerability of villagers is very significant. These measures stabilize the rural population, maintain the rural economy, strengthen social cohesion and increase household income. According to field studies, the best way to deal with drought in this area is to manage water resources and protect aqueducts. In this area, the villagers pay a lot of attention to preserving and dredging these long-standing and traditional aqueducts. Also, many insulated pools have been constructed to store water. Since much of the water loss occurs in waterways, measures such as building cement canals, piping and using new irrigation technologies such as pressurized and low-pressure irrigation, and making indoor water canals have been taken to prevent evaporation. These have been done through water transfer projects in various villages such as Al-Qour, Mazdab and Glunabad. In addition, due to the decline of the agricultural economy, the villagers have been helped with their income in other economic sectors. In this regard, certain jobs have been created to make the rural livelihood more resilient. For example, various facilities such as livestock units and handicraft workshops have been established in the village, resulting in sustainable livelihoods and job creation for young people and women.
Conclusion: Drought control is one of the effective measures in rural areas. The most obvious consequence of drought is water shortage in agriculture which causes many problems in rural areas. One of the most important measures taken in the field of water resources in rural areas is the construction of pools to use for water storage. The construction of cement water transfer canals is another solution to prevent water evaporation. Another way to practically deal with drought in this rural area is to change the cultivation pattern. In addition, the stabilization of livelihood has occurred through the economic diversification of the measures that have led to rural resilience. In a comparative study of measures, it was shown that the measures to prevent water loss in the cultivation of low-requirement crops are more cost-effective and efficient than the other measures. Economic diversification and job creation in other economic activities have also proved to be important. Therefore, in order for rural households to be resilient, a set of social and economic measures are needed to manage natural hazards such as drought.