Bai, X. (2007). Industrial ecology and the global impacts of cities. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 11(2),1–6.
Barati, N., and Sardareh, A. (2013). Effects of urban form on automobile dependency and energy consumption in Tehran residential regions. Journal of Bagh-e-Nazar, 10 (26), 3 – 12. (in Farsi).
Betsill, M., and Bulkeley, H. (2007) ‘Looking back and thinking ahead: A decade of cities and climate change research’. Local Environment, 12(5), 447–456.
Colenbrander, S., Gouldson, A., Roy, J., Kerr, N., Sarkar, S., Hall, S., Sudmant, A., Ghatak, A., Chakravarty, D., Ganguly, D., and Mcanulla, F. (2017). Can low-carbon urban development be pro-poor? The case of Kolkata, India. Environment & Urbanization, 29 (1),139–158.
Davis, S.J and Caldeira, K. (2010). Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, 107, 5687–5692.
DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). (2012). What is adaptation? Department for Environment. Food and Rural Affairs website. Available via http://www.defra
. gov.uk/environment/climate/adaptation/what.htm. Cited Feb 2010
Department of environment. (2014). An overview of greenhouse gas emissions inventory calculation. Tehran: National Climate Change Office. (in Farsi).
Dhakal, S. (2004). Urban Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asian Mega-Cities: Policies for Sustainable Future, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Japan.
Ewing, R., K. Bartholomew, S. Winkelman, J. Walters and D. Chen. (2008). Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change, Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC.
Fan, J.L., Hou, Y.B., Wang, Q., Wang, C., Wei, Y.M. (2016). Exploring the characteristics of production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions of major economies: A multiple dimension comparison. Appl. Energy, 184, 790–799.
Franchetti, M., and Apul, D. (2013). Carbon footprint analysis: concepts, methods, implementation and case studies, CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group. First edition.
Hafeznia, M. (2010). Research method in humanities, Tehran: Samt publication. (in Farsi).
Hertwich, E., and Peters G. (2009). ‘Carbon footprint of nations: A global, trade-linked analysis’, Environmental Science & Technology, 43(16), 6414–6420.
IEA. (2012). World Energy Outlook 2012. Paris: International Energy Agency (IEA). 668 Pages.
(IPCC) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Chapter 8, Urban Areas. 113 pages.
Jiang, L. and Hardee K. (2009). ‘How do recent population trends matter to climate change’. Population Research and Policy Review, 30 (2), 287-312.
Jakob, M., Steckel, J.C., Edenhofer, O. (2014). Consumption- versus production-based emission policies. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ, 6, 297–318.
Mayor of London. (2007). Action Today to Protect Tomorrow: The Mayor’s Climate Change Action Plan, Greater London Authority, London.
Mehrotra, S., B. Lefevre, R. Zimmerman, H. Gerçek, K. Jacob, S. Srinivasan. (2011). Climate change and urban transportation systems. Climate Change and Cities: First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network, C. Rosenzweig, W. D. Solecki, S. A. Hammer, S. Mehrotra, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 145–177.
Mohammadnejad, A and Sarrafi, M. (2014). Mitigating Global Climate Change and Urban planning Implications: A Problem Statement for Tehran Metropolis. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 12 (1
), 35-48. (in Farsi).
National Iranian Oil Product Distribution Company, Statistics of energy-producing oil products, Tehran: National Iranian Oil Product Distribution Company publishing, from 2007 to 2016. (in Farsi).
-North, P., Nurse, A., and Barker, T. (2017). The neo-liberalization of climate? Progressing climate policy under austerity urbanism. Environment and Planning A, 49(8), 1797–1815.
Pandey, D., Agrawal., Pandey, J.S. (2011). Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation. Environ Monit Assess, 178, 135–160.
Peters, G. (2008) ‘From production-based to consumption-based national emission inventories. Ecological Economics, 65(1), 13–23.
Radu., L, Scrieciu., A., Caracota, M. (2013). Carbon Footprint Analysis: Towards a Projects Evaluation Model for Promoting Sustainable Development. Procedia Economics and Finance, 6, 353– 363.
Satterthwaite, D. (2009). ‘The implications of population growth and urbanization for climate change’. Environment and Urbanization, 21(2), 545–567.
Satterthwaite, D. (2010). The Contribution of Cities to Global Warming and their Potential Contributions to Solutions. Environment and Urbanization, 1(1),1–12.
Spivak J. Top 10 Global Cities with Lowest Greenhouse Gas Emissions, http://urbanland. uli.org/articles/2011/nov/spivakglobal, (accessed: November 17, 2011).
Tehran city statistics, Tehran Information and Communication Technology Organization. Tehran: Information and Communication Technology Organization Publishing; 2006, .2009 and 2016. (in Farsi).
Tehran Urban Planning and Research Center, (2011). Tehran City State of Environment, Deputy of studies and planning for infrastructure and comprehensive plan. Tehran Urban Planning and Research Center publishing. (in Farsi).
Tehran Urban Planning and Research Center, (2013). Tehran City State of Environment, Deputy of studies and planning for infrastructure and comprehensive plan. Tehran Urban Planning and Research Center publishing. (in Farsi).
Tu, Yong. (2018). Urban debates for climate change after the Kyoto Protocol. Urban Studies, 55(1), 3–18.
UNEP, (2011). Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, Accessible: www.unep.org/greeneconomy
UNEP, UN-Habitat and World Bank, (2010). Draft International Standard for Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Cities, presented at 5th World Urban Forum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March 2010, www.unep.org/urban_environment/PDFs/ InternationalStd-GHG.pdf, last accessed 6 October 2010.
UN Habitat, (2011). Cities and climate change, Global report on human settlements, First published by Earthscan, London & Washington, DC.
UN Habitat. (2016). World cities report 2016: Urbanization and Development, Emerging Future. Nairobi, Kenya.
UN Habitat. (2017). Sustainable urbanization in the Paris agreement, comparative review for urban content in the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Nairobi, October 2017.
VandeWeghe, J. R. and Kennedy, C. (2007). A spatial analysis of residential greenhouse gas emissions in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 11(2), 133–144.
Wackernagel, M., & Rees, W. E. (1996). Our ecological footprint: Reducing human impact on the earth. Gabriola Iisland, BC: New Society Publishers.
Wackernagel, M., Kitzes J., Moran, D., Goldfinger S., and Thomas, M. (2006). The ecological footprint of cities and regions: Comparing resource availability with resource demand. Environment and Urbanization, 18(1), 103–112.
World Bank. (2016). Climate change action plan 2016 – 2020, World Bank, Washington, DC.