عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to the shortage of surface water resources, the disproportionate distribution of these resources in the country, and at the risks facing the country's high-quality soils, such as soil erosion and soil smuggling, this study seeks to find answers to the questions ‘what has caused the controversy and competition over the water and soil in Iran?’ and ‘what are the consequences of this conflict?’. According to the results of this study, regardless of the components of shortage and need, which are the main causes of competition and conflict over water resources inside Iran, there are other factors at work. They include mismanagement, inefficiency of consumption patterns and quantitative development plans made abruptly and without any proper study in the form of plans for water transfer from the upstream provinces to lowerer provinces. Soil resources are threatened and destroyed along with water resources. In addition to the erosion of millions of tons of soil per year, agricultural soils in hundreds of places in the country are exposed to contaminants such as agricultural pesticides, toxic metals and sewage. Another problem threatening the security of Iran’s agriculture is the smuggling of high-quality soil to the Gulf states, which continues to be due to the lack of attention of the authorities and the lack of strong control and effective organizations to combat it.