Investigation and analysis of the urban development of premature cities in the spatial organization of Semnan province

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 , Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.



During the last century, the process of urbanization accelerated; So that along with the massive migration of villagers to the cities, small rural areas were also upgraded to new cities. The process that first started in developed countries and then from the 1950s onward, it was also given a lot of attention in developing countries. In Iran, during a period of 60 years, the number of cities in the country has increased from 199 cities in 1335 to 1243 cities in 1395. The intensity of this trend has been such that after the Islamic revolution, the number of cities has increased more than 3.05 times. Considering this issue, it can be said that in the past few years, the development of small towns, by upgrading villages to cities, has been considered as one of the main policies to improve the quality of life in rural areas of Iran, and with this purpose, large number of rural centers have been upgraded to cities. Semnan province is not exempted from this rule and the increasing trend of cities in the province has always been upward during the last few decades and has reached 20 cities in 1395 census from 4 cities in 1335 census. Considering the high number of villages that have been converted into cities in Semnan province, this research has led to the answer to the question that what is the process of urban development in the premature cities class in the spatial organization of Semnan province?


The current research is of an applied type and according to the investigated components, the approach governing it is descriptive-analytical. Data collection is done in the form of library and documents and through the sources and information of the general population and housing census of 1395, the statistical yearbook of 1399, as well as the information of the Semnan governorate has been collected and analyzed. The statistical population of the research includes 7 urban points of Semnan province, which according to the last census have a population of less than five thousand people and are ranked among the premature cities of the province. In this research, an attempt is made to analyze and investigate the spatial distribution of premature cities in the province by using Moran's models, the nearest neighbor test, the standard deviation ellipse and the center of the mean, and then using the IDW tool in the GIS software to The analysis of the position of premature cities in the urban space organization of the province is discussed.

Discussion and Results

The method of distribution of premature cities based on the nearest neighbor test and Moran's index is located in the yellow part of the diagram. Therefore, based on the obtained data, the premature cities of the province did not follow a specific pattern of being clustered or scattered, but their distribution method was random. In the average center test, the central point of the premature cities is located in the middle of the two premature cities of Royan and Amiriyeh. the standard deviation is drawn from southwest to northeast according to the location of premature cities. Regarding the indicators of urban development, the physical condition of premature cities in the province is very weak in the field of apartment building, and all seven premature cities have the lowest amount of apartment building in the entire province. premature cities of the province are weak in terms of strengthening buildings and using metal and concrete frames, and they mostly have the least use of building frames in their buildings compared to other cities of the province, so that all seven premature cities of the province are in the cold part of the map. have been taken and displayed in yellow. In terms of social indicators, the premature cities of the province are weak in terms of literacy and the percentage of illiteracy is still high in them, but they have been somewhat successful in accepting immigrants and have been able to attract the immigrant population in their area of influence to some extent. premature cities have a better employment situation than other cities in the province. Because according to the map, the best situation in terms of employment is related to the two cities of Kohn-Abad and Kalateh-Roudbar, both of which, as premature cities of the province, have the lowest unemployment rate in the entire province.


In terms of position, premature cities have a dual position in terms of physical, economic and social parameters among other cities of the province. In such a way that in terms of physical indicators, such cities have not yet developed much, and the creation of skeletons and apartment buildings in such cities is not very popular due to the low price of land compared to other cities, and in this respect, premature cities class is not in a good place, but in the matter of accepting immigrants and also the level of employment in these cities, they are in an average situation, and premature cities that are far from other relatively developed cities in the province and have a wider sphere of influence have been able to some extent in attracting Immigrants from their surrounding region and also creating employment in various fields should be successful to some extent due to their political-administrative role. In the end, it can be concluded that the premature cities class has an average position in the urban network of the province and considering that the majority of the premature cities class of the province have been promoted from the village to the city due to being the center of the district, with the role of Various, despite their small population, have been successful to some extent.


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