بررسی عوامل وعناصر دیرینه جغرافیایی برشکل گیری تمدن‌ها بااستفاده از تکنیک پویانمایی سیستم ها (مطالعه موردی تمدن شهداد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو محترم هیات علمی دانشگاه باهنر کرمان

2 گروه آموزشی جغرافیا، دانشگاه باهنر کرمان

3 دانشیار آب و هواشناسی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد

چکیده

چکیده:
شهداد منطقه‌ای گرم و خشک، در حاشیه غربی دشت لوت واقع شده است، که خود بخشی از یک واحد جغرافیایی طبیعی به نام لوت می باشد شناسان،جغرافیدانان،گردشگران،بوده است.علاوه بر ابعاد طبیعی منحصر به فرد ،از نظر سابقه تمدنی نیز جزو نقاط تمدن ساز بوده است که از هزاره چهارم قبل از میلاد در این بستر جغرافیایی نه چندان مطلوب رشد و نمو یافته و به تمدن‌های دور و نزدیک اثر متقابل داشته است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، شناسایی عوامل بسترساز طبیعی و انسانی بر شکل‌گیری تمدن شهداداز هزاره چهارم قبل از میلاد بوده و تحولاتی که طی این مدت پذیرفته و هم اکنون به عنوان یک تمدن شهری درحاشیه بیابان خودنمایی می‌کند. مسئله مورد بحث و بررسی در این پژوهش، تحلیل مهم‌ترین عوامل محیطی موثر بر شکل‌گیری تمدن شهداد بوده است. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، تاریخی-اکتشافی است، که با استفاده از داده‌های اسنادی و باستان‌شناختی و بازسازی شرایط محیطی گذشته در منطقه مورد مطالعه به انجام رسید. بازسازی شرایط محیطی گذشته با استفاده از شواهد میدانی، روابط تجربی و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) صورت گرفته. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که؛ ارتفاع از سطح دریا، موقعیت جغرافیایی، عدم وجود آب و هوای شدیدا گرم و یا سرد، افزایش بارش، افزایش آب رودخانه‌ها، خاک جلگه‌ای و حاصل‌خیز، مهم‌ترین عوامل طبیعی مؤثر بر شکل‌گیری تمدن شهداد؛ هم‌چنین کشاورزی، موقعیت مناسب بر سر راه‌های مهم و بزرگ، انواع ارتباطات با ملل مجاور، مهم‌ترین عوامل انسانی موثر بر شکل-گیری تمدن شهداد بوده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of paleo geographical factors and elements in the formation of civilizations using animation technique systems (Case study of Shahdad civilization)

نویسندگان [English]

  • hossein ghazanfarpour 1
  • mohsen pourkhosravani 2
  • Sadegh Karimi 3
  • behnaz shaikhshariati 4
1 Associate of professor
2 associate professor
3 Associate Professor of Climatology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
4 msc in geoghraphy
چکیده [English]

Investigation of paleo geographical factors and elements in the formation of civilizations using animation technique systems (Case study of Shahdad civilization)

Abstract
Introduction:
Civilization is the lifestyle of a group of people who lived in a geographical area in a historical period and had common goals and had special achievements. Lifestyle is an essential element of civilization. Civilization is a function of factors that either accelerate its movement or prevent it from moving in the right direction. In this regard, the factors affecting the formation of civilizations can be examined in two parts, natural parameters affecting the formation of civilizations: geographical location, topography, fault, climate, hydrology, lithology , Direction of slope, river, precipitation, temperature, humidity, slope, altitude, geological structure, water resources, soil and land capability are the most important natural factors. The effect of these factors is not only very obvious on the establishment of human settlements, but also on the spirits and physical characteristics of different people. Human parameters affecting the formation and continuity of civilizations, including the establishment and stability of social interactions and trade and trade relations, creating conditions for permanent residence in the area and non-displacement of the most important human parameters affecting the formation of civilizations. Many people know Kerman province as a historical place, but in fact this province is the birthplace of ancient and prehistoric civilizations, each of which is more than six thousand years old. The existence of rich archeological sites such as the Art civilization in the south of Kerman and Khabis in Shahdad has been an example of surprising and astonishing resources for archaeologists. The ancient evil civilization on the shores of the Lut plain became one of the oldest human settlements of the fourth and early third millennium BC, which later proved the existence of the evil civilization (Shahdad).
Method:
This research is applied in terms of nature and semi-experimental in terms of method. The method used in this historical research is exploratory, which was performed using documentary and archaeological data and reconstruction of past environmental conditions in the study area. Library methods, documentation, archaeological studies, geomorphological evidence, topographic maps, digital elevation model (DEM) and climatic data of meteorological stations were used to collect data. Reconstruction of past environmental conditions was performed using field evidence, empirical relationships, and GIS. In order to achieve the main factors in the formation of civilizations (natural and human) and their cause and effect, the Dynamics of Systems and Software (VENSIM) method was used.
Discussion and Findings:
Unlike most prehistoric centers in the Middle East that have housed various civilizations for thousands of years, the Shahdad civilization was forced by nature in different millennia in a new location near the original site. Was formed. According to this routine, the remains of these ancient civilizations from the fifth millennium BC to the present day, are scattered in a large area. The current situation and their influence on each other showed that they played an important role in the rise and fall of civilization. The results of past and present temperature and past and present rain show that in the past the minimum temperature was lower and the maximum rainfall was higher. The point of the lake has reached 1295 square kilometers and the old city of Shahdad is located on the shores of the lake. In order to reconstruct the maximum of Lut Lake, first glacial tabs were identified and harvested on 1: 50,000 topographic maps of 237 glacial tabs, and then the terraces of the area were closed by establishing communication between all tabs. The current city of Shahdad is located between a terrace of 400 meters and a terrace of 550 meters. Khabis city (ancient city of Shahdad) was located between Shahdad lake and river; Which was close to the lake from the east and overlooked the Shahdad River from the west; On the other hand, as a coastal city, this lake was formed in the seventh millennium BC and in that period had its maximum area, depth and volume. It was not long after the formation of the early civilization of Shahdad that the devastating flood engulfed it. The date of this flood varies between the fifth millennium to the fourth millennium BC. Monsoon winds played an important role in creating the flood. As a result, during this great flood, the civilization of martyrdom was destroyed and uncivilized civilization re-emerged in the region. In the third millennium BC, we see the peak of progress and prosperity of the martyrdom civilization. Reduction of river water, gradual drying of the lake, lack of rain, severe reduction of lake water, after centuries of the peak of development and prosperity of Shahdad civilization, in the third millennium or second millennium BC, rain Another and during the second devastating flood, the civilization of Shahdad disappears again, the second millennium BC, uncivilized reappears in this basin. During this period, the lake no longer flourishes as before, and due to climate change and warmer weather, its area, depth and volume have greatly decreased and its water has become saline. In this millennium, in addition to the Shahdad civilization, civilizations have been declining in the Halilrood and Helmand basins.
Conclusion:
Shahdad civilization is considered as an urban civilization in the full sense of the word. Natural and human factors played a major role in the formation of Shahdad civilization. The east formed the civilization of Shahdad and for thousands of years served as the connecting point of its simultaneous civilizations in the east, northeast, south and west. It is evident in the region. Climate change, reduction of precipitation and increase of temperature caused decrease of water level of the lake, its salinization and decrease of economic and communication activities and finally caused the destruction of civilization

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paleo geography
  • formation of civilization
  • civilization of Shahdad
  • Lut desert
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