عنوان مقاله [English]
Management and planning at the level of metropolitan areas can not be limited to the boundaries of the city (Rahmani, 2013); Because metropolitan areas have to manage diverse domains (Pirlone, 2017). The management of Iranian metropolitan in the main city and surrounding settlements (urban and rural areas) is separate and the organization is not responsible for coordination between organizations and municipalities. The management of these areas is limited to the program and plan level only. The metropolitan area of Mashhad suffers from disorder due to managerial divisions in the region. This study aims to develop a model for integrated management of Mashhad metropolitan area and seeks to answer the question of what factors should be considered to achieve managerial integration at the level of Mashhad metropolitan area? In the following, the components obtained from the final model will be prioritized.
This research has been done in two stages. In the first stage, the integrated management model of Mashhad metropolitan area is determined and in the second stage, the categories affecting the integrated management of Mashhad metropolitan area are prioritized. In the first stage, a qualitative method based on grounded theory is used. A systematic method that has three main stages: open encryption, axial encryption, and selective encryption. To collect qualitative information, semi-structured interviews with experts and specialists in the field of urban and regional management in Mashhad have been used. In the second step, the SWARA method is used to prioritize the categories. SWARA is one of the structural equation modeling methods. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared for city managers. The sample size was 60 people. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed based on the views and opinions of experts. Reliability was also assessed as good with Cronbach's alpha confirmation. Finally, the components were prioritized by calculating the final normal weight.
Discussion and Results
To formulate the model in the first stage after the open encryption operation, in the second stage of encryption, common and similar concepts were semantically classified into 12 major categories. In the second stage, according to the identified categories, the central categories including "political integration", "organizational institutional integration", "governmental political integration" and "integration of interests and groups" were identified. And in the third stage, which was selective coding, the final model was obtained. Based on this model, the phenomenon of "managerial integrity in the mother city" was identified as the center phenomenon. The two categories of "coordinating organization" and "adaptation of the territory of urban management to political divisions" are causal conditions. The five categories of "rules and regulations", "amendment of laws", "plan", "contracts and agreements of municipalities" and "participation through elections" were considered strategies. "Decentralization" and "rules and regulations" are considered intervening conditions. "Participation of public, public and private sector groups" and "interaction of stakeholder groups" are the underlying factors within the field. "Organizational institutional integration", "Political integration", "Integration of interests and groups" and "Political-governmental integration" are the consequences.
In this research, an attempt has been made to provide comprehensive and complete indicators based on the opinion of local urban managers; The main difference between the indicators introduced in this study compared to other indicators in the literature of regional innovation is attention to all aspects of integration. According to the interviews in the first stage (open coding), several concepts were identified in the form of 12 components. These concepts include national and regional plans, laws and regulations, the dynamics of laws in line with existing issues, the participation of various civil and private sectors, public and public, the interaction of participatory groups, participation through elections, coordinated organization. Municipal contracts and agreements, non-overlap in the functions of organs, unity of command, adaptation of the territory of urban management to political divisions and decentralization. In the second stage, centralized coding was performed and the components obtained in a more general category of four components of "organizational institutional integration", "political integration", "integration of interests and groups" and "policy-government integration" They were grouped. In the third stage, the central phenomenon which is the "managerial integration in the field of mother city"; And the pivotal and primary components in the model were placed around the main phenomenon. After prioritizing the categories, it was determined that the components of national and regional plans, with a weight of 0.378, ranked first, rules and regulations, with a final weight of 0.215, ranked second, the dynamics of rules According to the existing issues, with a weight of 0.139, the third rank and the participation of various civil and private, public and public sectors, with a weight of 0.093 are in the fourth rank. Finally, it is proposed to develop an integrated management model in the metropolitan area of Mashhad in order to implement indicators and criteria.