عنوان مقاله [English]
Watershed management plans are the starting point for conserving natural resources and sustaining them to better exploit and prevent the loss of national resources, and by quantitatively evaluating them, a clear view of the effectiveness of such measures in watersheds can be obtained.The important point in this regard is the effectiveness and profitability of watershed management projects that require review and evaluation of watershed management operations performed so that based on the results, while determining the efficiency of watershed management operations in the above basin, decide on the implementation of similar projects in other basins Also provide watersheds. More than a decade has passed since the new era of watershed management in the country, which has been accompanied by a fundamental change in its structure and importance.The result of this development is the improvement of the qualitative and quantitative level of programs in different levels and departments of management, executive, study and coordination with other relevant departments in the fields of nature. The view of planners and agents of the watershed management sector of the implementation of a series of limited executive projects, with the aim of controlling sediment upstream of large dams, has now spread throughout the vast country of Iran with goals such as soil and water protection, drought control, flood control., Improving the conditions of green land cover, paying attention to agricultural infrastructure resources, improving the economic conditions of watersheds, etc. have evolved. Due to the social and economic conditions of rural communities, low efficiency of production factors in different parts of the rural economy, inability to use existing facilities and their improper use, are among the most obvious economic variables that reduce efficiency at the level of natural resources.The purpose of this study is to determine and identify the effects of watershed management projects on the socio-economic and environmental system of the villages located in the Kurdish watershed in Jahrom city.
The present quantitative research has been conducted with the aim of determining and identifying the effects of the implementation of the watershed management plan on the socio-economic system of villages with watersheds in a survey using a questionnaire.The statistical population of the study includes the number of watershed operators, among the rural households living in the study basins (390 households) in 5 villages located in the Kurdish section, which has been selected as the statistical population.The statistical sample size is estimated as 190 samples according to Krejcie and Morgan table. In this study, 35 items were examined from the perspective of the rural community. After filling in the questionnaires, statistical information was extracted and analyzed using SPSS software and questionnaire coding. In statistical analysis, two methods of descriptive and analytical statistics have been used. In the method of descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentage of frequencies are presented and in the method of inferential statistics, factor analysis test is used.
Regarding the evaluation of the effects of the implementation of the watershed management plan, according to the results of reviewing resources and field studies, a list of effective indicators on the implementation of this plan related to rural areas was extracted. In this study, the research variables are reduced to a smaller number of variables called factors. This method of factor analysis is called principal component analysis and its purpose is to solve the problem of internal dependence of a set of variables and summarize them in several components or factors. In this factor analysis, 7 factors have a specific value greater than 1. It should be noted that all the above factors explain 51.74% of the total variance of the variables and the remaining percentage of the remaining variance is related to other factors that could not be predicted. Meanwhile, out of 35 variables, 26 variables were involved in explaining the factors and the remaining 9 variables were removed from the analysis due to the fact that their factor load was less than 0.5. According to the factor analysis, the 26 variables under study can be named as seven factors. In the present study, due to the high share of each of the variables loaded in each of the seven factors rotated, the factors that have the ability to explain the variances have been named, and indicates that the factor analysis and variables are satisfactory. These factors are: local participation, development of agricultural production resources, reducing the impact of natural hazards, increasing agricultural production, employment development, reducing rural-urban migration and increasing the price of agricultural land, among which the participation of local communities with 17.74% It has been the most influential compared to other factors in the implementation of this plan.
The results of this study are derived using factor analysis of various factors, based on which these factors are placed in 7 groups with variables. In general, variables, communication with experts and promoters, the share of people's representatives in basin management, public participation, increasing the level of gardens, reducing flood damage to rural roads, reducing erosion and sediment, solving problems related to water shortage in the region and land prices Horticulture and agriculture have been the most important variables affecting the implementation of this plan.Examining similar examples of the effects of watershed management projects on rural development over the past few years shows different results, but the prevailing situation indicates changes in socio-economic and environmental dimensions in rural areas. In other words, studies such as(Ghanbari and Qudussi, 2008 - Mosaei et al, 2010 and Rezaei et al., 2012, etc.)show a trend of effective changes in all dimensions and in some studies to the social dimension (participation). has it. Of course, it should not be overlooked that these changes are not the same in all cases and have fluctuated relative to each other. Including a series of variables(reduction of natural hazards, development of production resources and increasing the price of agricultural land) that have been added in this study and as can be seen in the table of research findings, these variables have been effective in implementing the watershed management plan.